Spine Core Literature Resources in Neuroimaging



  1. Kulkarni MV, McArdle CB, Kopanicky D, et al. Acute spinal cord injury: MR imaging at 1.5 T. Radiology 1987;164(3):837-43. https://pubs.rsna.org/doi/10.1148/radiology.164.3.3615885
  2. Schaefer DM, Flanders A, Northrup BE, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging of acute cervical spine trauma. Correlation with severity of neurologic injury. Spine 1989;14(10):1090-5. https://journals.lww.com/spinejournal/Abstract/1989/10000/Magnetic_Resonance_Imaging_of_Acute_Cervical_Spine.11.aspx
  3. Flanders AE, Schaefer DM, Doan HT, et al. Acute cervical spine trauma: correlation of MR imaging findings with degree of neurologic deficit. Radiology 1990;177(1):25-33. https://pubs.rsna.org/doi/10.1148/radiology.177.1.2399326
  4. Miyanji F, Furlan JC, Aarabi B, et al. Acute cervical traumatic spinal cord injury: MR imaging findings correlated with neurologic outcome–prospective study with 100 consecutive patients. Radiology 2007;243(3):820-7. https://pubs.rsna.org/doi/abs/10.1148/radiol.2433060583
  5. Shanmuganathan K, Gullapalli RP, Zhuo J, et al. Diffusion tensor MR imaging in cervical spine trauma. AJNR. 2008;29(4):655-659. http://www.ajnr.org/content/29/4/655
  6. Shanmuganathan K, Zhuo J, Chen HH, et al. Diffusion Tensor Imaging Parameter Obtained during Acute Blunt Cervical Spinal Cord Injury in Predicting Long-Term Outcome. Journal of neurotrauma 2017;34(21):2964-71. https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/neu.2016.4901
  7. Vaccaro A, Oner C, Kepler C, et al. AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System: Fracture Description, Neurological Status, and Key Modifers. Spine 2013;38(23):2028-2037. https://journals.lww.com/spinejournal/Abstract/2013/11010/AOSpine_Thoracolumbar_Spine_Injury_Classification.14.aspx
  8. Denis F. Spinal Instability as Defined by the Three-column Spine Concept in Acute Spinal Trauma. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. 1984;189:65-76. https://journals.lww.com/clinorthop/Abstract/1984/10000/Spinal_Instability_as_Defined_by_the_Three_column.8.aspx
  9. Quencer RM, Bunge RP, Egnor M, et al. Acute traumatic central cord syndrome-MRI-Pathological correlations. Neuroradiology. 1992;34(2):85-94. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF00588148
  10. Hogan GJ, Mirvis SE, Shanmuganathan K, Scalea, TM. Exclusion of unstable cervical spine injury in obtunded patients with blunt trauma: Is MR imaging needed when multi-detector row CT findings are normal. Radiology. 2005;237(1):106-113. https://pubs.rsna.org/doi/abs/10.1148/radiol.2371040697


  1. Weidauer S, Nichtweiss M, Lanfermann H, Zanella FE. Spinal cord infarction: MR Imaging and clinical features in 16 cases. Neuroradiology. 2002;44(10):851-857. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00234-002-0828-5
  2. Saraf-Lavi E, Bown BC, Quencer RM, et al. Detection of spinal dural arteriovenous fistulae with MR imaging and contrast-enhanced MR angiography: Sensitivity, specificity, and prediction of vertebral level. AJNR. 2002;23(5):858-867. http://www.ajnr.org/content/23/5/858
  3. Krings T, Lasjaunias PL, Hans JF, et al. Imaging in spinal vascular disease. Neuroimaging Clin of N Am. 2007;17(1):57-72. https://www.neuroimaging.theclinics.com/article/S1052-5149(07)00002-0/fulltext
  4. Mascalchi M, Bianchi MC, Quilici N, et al. MR Angiography of Spinal Vascular Malformations. AJNR. 1995;16(2):289-97. http://www.ajnr.org/content/16/2/289.long
  5. Holtas S, Heiling M, Lonntoft M, et al. Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma: Findings at MR Imaging and clinical correlation. Radiology. 1996;199(2):409-413. https://pubs.rsna.org/doi/10.1148/radiology.199.2.8668786
  6. Langner S, Fleck S, Kirsch M, et al. Whole-body CT trauma imaging with adapted and optimized CT angiography of the craniocervical vessels: Do we need an extra screening examination? AJNR. 2008;29(10):1902-1907. http://www.ajnr.org/content/29/10/1902
  7. Friedman D, Flanders A, Thomas C, et al. Vertebral artery injury after acute cervical-spine trauma- rate of occurrence as detected by MR-Angiography and assessment of clinical consequences. AJR. 1995;164(2):443-447. https://www.ajronline.org/doi/pdf/10.2214/ajr.164.2.7839986


  1. Rajasekaran S, Babu JN, Arun R, Armstrong BR, Shetty AP, Murugan S. ISSLS prize winner: A study of diffusion in human lumbar discs: a serial magnetic resonance imaging study documenting the influence of the endplate on diffusion in normal and degenerate discs. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2004;29(23):2654-2667. doi:10.1097/01.brs.0000148014.15210.64 https://journals.lww.com/spinejournal/Abstract/2004/12010/ISSLS_Prize_Winner__A_Study_of_Diffusion_in_Human.9.aspx
  2. Dudli S, Fields AJ, Samartzis D, Karppinen J, Lotz JC. Pathobiology of Modic changes. Eur Spine J. 2016;25(11):3723-3734. doi:10.1007/s00586-016-4459-7 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5477843/
  3. Modic MT, Ross JS. Lumbar degenerative disk disease. Radiology. 2007;245(1):43-61. doi:10.1148/radiol.2451051706 https://pubs.rsna.org/doi/10.1148/radiol.2451051706
  4. Modic MT, Steinberg PM, Ross JS, Masaryk TJ, Carter JR. Degenerative disk disease: assessment of changes in vertebral body marrow with MR imaging. Radiology. 1988;166(1 Pt 1):193-199. doi:10.1148/radiology.166.1.3336678 https://pubs.rsna.org/doi/10.1148/radiology.166.1.3336678
  5. Modic MT, Obuchowski NA, Ross JS, et al. Acute low back pain and radiculopathy: MR imaging findings and their prognostic role and effect on outcome. Radiology. 2005;237(2):597-604. doi:10.1148/radiol.2372041509 https://pubs.rsna.org/doi/10.1148/radiol.2372041509
  6. Kadanka Z Jr, Adamova B, Kerkovsky M, et al. Predictors of symptomatic myelopathy in degenerative cervical spinal cord compression. Brain Behav. 2017;7(9):e00797. Published 2017 Aug 11. doi:10.1002/brb3.797 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5607559/
  7. Flanagan EP, Krecke KN, Marsh RW, Giannini C, Keegan BM, Weinshenker BG. Specific pattern of gadolinium enhancement in spondylotic myelopathy. Ann Neurol. 2014;76(1):54-65. doi:10.1002/ana.24184 https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ana.24184


  1. Ross JS, Obuchowski N, Modic MT. MR evaluation of epidural fibrosis: proposed grading system with intra- and inter-observer variability. Neurol Res. 1999;21 Suppl 1:S23-S26. doi:10.1080/01616412.1999.11758604 https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01616412.1999.11758604
  2. Ross JS, Masaryk TJ, Schrader M, Gentili A, Bohlman H, Modic MT. MR imaging of the postoperative lumbar spine: assessment with gadopentetate dimeglumine. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1990;155(4):867-872. doi:10.2214/ajr.155.4.2119123 https://www.ajronline.org/doi/pdf/10.2214/ajr.155.4.2119123
  3. Bundschuh CV, Modic MT, Ross JS, Masaryk TJ, Bohlman H. Epidural fibrosis and recurrent disk herniation in the lumbar spine: MR imaging assessment. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1988;150(4):923-932. doi:10.2214/ajr.150.4.923 https://www.ajronline.org/doi/pdf/10.2214/ajr.150.4.923
  4. Gnanasegaran G, Paycha F, Strobel K, et al. Bone SPECT/CT in Postoperative Spine. Semin Nucl Med. 2018;48(5):410-424. doi:10.1053/j.semnuclmed.2018.06.003 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0001299818300448?via%3Dihub
  5. Eisenmenger L, Clark AJ, Shah VN. Postoperative Spine: What the Surgeon Wants to Know. Radiol Clin North Am. 2019;57(2):415-438. doi:10.1016/j.rcl.2018.10.003 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0033838918301350


  1. Nabors MW, Pait TG, Byrd EB, et al. Updated assessment and current classification of spinal meningeal cysts. J Neurosurg. 1988;68(3):366-377. doi:10.3171/jns.1988.68.3.0366 https://thejns.org/view/journals/j-neurosurg/68/3/article-p366.xml
  2. Ricci C, Cova M, Kang YS, et al. Normal age-related patterns of cellular and fatty bone marrow distribution in the axial skeleton: MR imaging study. Radiology. 1990;177(1):83-88. doi:10.1148/radiology.177.1.2399343 https://pubs.rsna.org/doi/10.1148/radiology.177.1.2399343
  3. Rodriguez AG, Rodriguez-Soto AE, Burghardt AJ, Berven S, Majumdar S, Lotz JC. Morphology of the human vertebral endplate. J Orthop Res. 2012;30(2):280-287. doi:10.1002/jor.21513 https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/jor.21513
  4. Mellado JM, Larrosa R, Martín J, Yanguas N, Solanas S, Cozcolluela MR. MDCT of variations and anomalies of the neural arch and its processes: part 1–pedicles, pars interarticularis, laminae, and spinous process. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2011;197(1):W104-W113. doi:10.2214/AJR.10.5803 https://www.ajronline.org/doi/10.2214/AJR.10.5803
  5. Mellado JM, Larrosa R, Martín J, Yanguas N, Solanas S, Cozcolluela MR. MDCT of variations and anomalies of the neural arch and its processes: part 2–articular processes, transverse processes, and high cervical spine. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2011;197(1):W114-W121. doi:10.2214/AJR.10.5811 https://www.ajronline.org/doi/full/10.2214/AJR.10.5811
  6. Berger-Groch J, Thiesen DM, Ntalos D, Hennes F, Hartel MJ. Assessment of bone quality at the lumbar and sacral spine using CT scans: a retrospective feasibility study in 50 comparing CT and DXA data. Eur Spine J. 2020;29(5):1098-1104. doi:10.1007/s00586-020-06292-z https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00586-020-06292-z
  7. Rufener S, Ibrahim M, Parmar HA. Imaging of congenital spine and spinal cord malformations. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 2011;21(3):659-viii. doi:10.1016/j.nic.2011.05.011 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1052514911000700
  8. Rossi A, Gandolfo C, Morana G, et al. Current classification and imaging of congenital spinal abnormalities. Semin Roentgenol. 2006;41(4):250-273. doi:10.1053/j.ro.2006.07.001 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0037198X06000460


  1. Patel, K. B., Poplawski, M. M., Pawha, P. S., Naidich, T. P. & Tanenbaum, L. N. Diffusion-weighted MRI “claw sign” improves differentiation of infectious from degenerative modic type 1 signal changes of the spine. American journal of neuroradiology 35, 1647-1652, doi:10.3174/ajnr.A3948 (2014). http://www.ajnr.org/content/early/2014/04/17/ajnr.A3948/tab-article-info
  2. Messacar, K. et al. A cluster of acute flaccid paralysis and cranial nerve dysfunction temporally associated with an outbreak of enterovirus D68 in children in Colorado, USA. Lancet 385, 1662-1671, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)62457-0 (2015). https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(14)62457-0/fulltext
  3. Ledbetter LN, Salzman KL, Shah LM. Imaging Psoas Sign in Lumbar Spinal Infections: Evaluation of Diagnostic Accuracy and Comparison with Established Imaging Characteristics. AJNR American journal of neuroradiology 2016;37(4):736-41. http://www.ajnr.org/content/37/4/736
  4. Modic M, Pavlicek W, Weinstein M, Boumphrey F, et al., Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Intervertebral Disk Disease. Radiology 1984;152:103-111. https://pubs.rsna.org/doi/10.1148/radiology.152.1.6729099
  5. Ledermann HP, Schweitzer ME, Morrison WB, et al. MR imaging in spinal infections: Rules or myths? Radiology. 2003;228(2):506-514. https://pubs.rsna.org/doi/abs/10.1148/radiol.2282020752
  6. Whiteman, M. L., Dandapani, B. K., Shebert, R. T. & Post, M. J. MRI of AIDS-related polyradiculomyelitis. Journal of computer assisted tomography 18, 7-11 (1994). https://journals.lww.com/jcat/Abstract/1994/01000/MRI_of_AIDS_Related_Polyradiculomyelitis.2.aspx
  7. Richie, M. B. & Pruitt, A. A. Spinal cord infections. Neurologic clinics 31, 19-53, doi:10.1016/j.ncl.2012.09.006 (2013). https://www.neurologic.theclinics.com/article/S0733-8619(12)00067-9/abstract
  8. Gratz S, Dorner J, Fischer U. F-18-FDG hybrid PET in patients with suspected spondylitis. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2002;29(4):516-224. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00259-001-0719-8
  9. Shanley DJ. Tuberculosis of the spine – imaging features. AJNR. 1995;164(3):659-664.Sharif HS. Role of MR imaging in management of spinal infections. AJR. 1992;158(6):1333-1345. https://www.ajronline.org/doi/abs/10.2214/ajr.158.6.1590137
  10. Reihsaus E, Waldbaur H, Seeling W. Spinal epidural abscess: a meta-analysis of 915 patients. Neurosurgical Review. 2000;23(4):175-204. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/PL00011955


  1. Hermann KG, Althoff CE, Schneider U, et al. Spinal changes in patients with spondyloarthritis: comparison of MR imaging and radiographic appearances. Radiographics. 2005;25(3):559-570. doi:10.1148/rg.253045117 https://pubs.rsna.org/doi/full/10.1148/rg.253045117
  2. Gasperic N, Sersa I, Jeftic V, et al. Monitoring ankylosing spondylitis therapy by dynamic contrast-enhanced and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Skeletal Radiology. 2008;37(2);123-131. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00256-007-0407-2
  3. Rovira Canellas A, Rovira Gols A, Rio izquierdo J, et al. Idiopathic inflammatory-demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system. Neuroradiology. 2007;49(5):393-409. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00234-007-0216-2
  4. Gero B, Sze G, Sharif H. MR imaging of intradural inflammatory diseases of the spine. AJNR. 1991;12(5):1009-1019. http://www.ajnr.org/content/ajnr/12/5/1009.full.pdf
  5. Depasquale R, Kumar N, Lalam RK, et al. SAPHO: What radiologists should know. Clinical Radiology. 2012;67(3):195-206. https://www.clinicalradiologyonline.net/article/S0009-9260(11)00368-0/abstract

Advanced imaging techniques

  1. Erly WK, Oh ES, Outwater EK. The utility of in-phase/opposed-phase imaging in differentiating malignancy from acute benign compression fractures of the spine. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2006;27(6):1183-1188. http://www.ajnr.org/content/27/6/1183
  2. Zajick DC Jr, Morrison WB, Schweitzer ME, Parellada JA, Carrino JA. Benign and malignant processes: normal values and differentiation with chemical shift MR imaging in vertebral marrow. Radiology. 2005;237(2):590-596. doi:10.1148/radiol.2372040990 https://pubs.rsna.org/doi/abs/10.1148/radiol.2372040990
  3. Disler DG, McCauley TR, Ratner LM, Kesack CD, Cooper JA. In-phase and out-of-phase MR imaging of bone marrow: prediction of neoplasia based on the detection of coexistent fat and water. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1997;169(5):1439-1447. doi:10.2214/ajr.169.5.9353477 https://www.ajronline.org/doi/10.2214/ajr.169.5.9353477
  4. Hock A, Henning A, Boesiger P, Kollias SS. (1)H-MR spectroscopy in the human spinal cord. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2013;34(9):1682-1689. doi:10.3174/ajnr.A3342 http://www.ajnr.org/content/34/9/1682
  5. Khadem NR, Karimi S, Peck KK, et al. Characterizing hypervascular and hypovascular metastases and normal bone marrow of the spine using dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2012;33(11):2178-2185. doi:10.3174/ajnr.A3104 http://www.ajnr.org/content/early/2012/05/03/ajnr.A3104
  6. Morales KA, Arevalo-Perez J, Peck KK, Holodny AI, Lis E, Karimi S. Differentiating Atypical Hemangiomas and Metastatic Vertebral Lesions: The Role of T1-Weighted Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2018;39(5):968-973. doi:10.3174/ajnr.A5630 http://www.ajnr.org/content/39/5/968


  1. Rykken JB, Diehn FE, Hunt CH, et al. Rim and flame signs: postgadolinium MRI findings specific for non-CNS intramedullary spinal cord metastases. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2013;34(4):908-915. doi:10.3174/ajnr.A3292 http://www.ajnr.org/content/34/4/908
  2. Baur A, Stäbler A, Arbogast S, Duerr HR, Bartl R, Reiser M. Acute osteoporotic and neoplastic vertebral compression fractures: fluid sign at MR imaging. Radiology. 2002;225(3):730-735. doi:10.1148/radiol.2253011413 https://pubs.rsna.org/doi/10.1148/radiol.2253011413
  3. Rodallec MH, Feydy A, Larousserie F, et al. Diagnostic imaging of solitary tumors of the spine: what to do and say. Radiographics. 2008;28(4):1019-1041. doi:10.1148/rg.284075156 https://pubs.rsna.org/doi/10.1148/rg.284075156
  4. Lasocki A, Gaillard F, Harrison SJ. Multiple myeloma of the spine. Neuroradiol J. 2017;30(3):259-268. doi:10.1177/1971400917699426 https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1971400917699426
  5. Gaudino S, Martucci M, Colantonio R, et al. A systematic approach to vertebral hemangioma. Skeletal Radiol. 2015;44(1):25-36. doi:10.1007/s00256-014-2035-y https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00256-014-2035-y
  6. Merhemic Z, Stosic-Opincal T, Thurnher MM. Neuroimaging of Spinal Tumors. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 2016;24(3):563-579. doi:10.1016/j.mric.2016.04.007 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1064968916300216?via%3Dihub